Analisis Kondisi Digital Poverty di Indonesia

Authors

  • Anton Susanto Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informatika

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17933/jppi.2016.060204

Keywords:

Digital Poverty, Kebijakan, Pro-Poor

Abstract

ABSTRAK

Kebijakan pembangunan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi (TIK) harus memperhatikan tidak hanya pengembangan pasar (pro-growth policy), tetapi juga kebijakan yang pro-poor. Barrantes (2007) telah mendefinisikan keterbatasan akses dan penggunaan ICT  sebagai digital poverty yang meliputi tidak hanya dimensi ekonomi, tetapi juga kemampuan literasi TIK. Empat kategori kemiskinan digital seperti leveling yaitu extremely digitally poor, digitally poor, connected dan digitally “wealthy”. Penelitian ini fokus pada masalah yang terjadi di Indonesia dengan memetakan dan menganalisis kondisi digital poverty. Hasil penelitian akan berguna untuk mempertajam  kebijakan pro-poor di sektor ICT seperti salah satunya adalah kebijakan layanan telekomunikasi universal. Dengan menggunakan data yang dikumpulkan dari Survei Indikator ICT untuk Rumah Tangga dan Individu yang dilakukan dalam 3 tahun terakhir yaitu 2014, 2015 dan 2016, dan juga dilengkapi dengan data Potensi Desa (Podes) tahun 2014, maka penelitian ini menemukan bahwa terjadi peningkatan baik dari digitally “wealthy” dan extremely digitally poor. Pembangunan TIK telah mendorong pemanfaatan internet untuk aktivitas e-commerce dan interaksi layanan e-government dan e-business, namun disisi lain terdapat potensi digital exclusion untuk individu yang dalam kondisi kemiskinan digital yang ekstrim. Penelitian ini juga menemukan bahwa selain faktor ekonomi, faktor kondisi SDM rumah tangga dan kondisi supply ICT dan listrik juga ikut berpengaruh terhadap kemiskinan digital. Bahkan dari ketiga faktor tersebut, kondisi SDM adalah faktor yang paling berpengaruh.

 

ABSTRACT

ICT development policy should concern not only market development (pro-growth) but also pro-poor policy. Barrantes (2007) has defined the lack of ICT as digital poverty. That covered not only economic dimension, but also ICT illiteracy. The four category of digital poverty as leveling are extremely digitally poor, digitally poor, connected and digitally “wealthy”. This research focus on that issue in Indonesia by mapping and analysis the digital poverty. The reseacrh result will be usefull to shaping the pro-poor policy for ICT sector such as universal telecomunication service. By using the data collected from Survey of ICT Indicator for Households and Inviduals that has held in 3 years (2014, 2015 and 2016) and also complemented by data Podes 2014, this reseach found that increasing of both of the  digitally “wealthy” and extremely digitally poor. ICT development has encouraged the use of the internet for e-commerce activities and interaction of e-government and e-business, but on the other hand there is the potential of digital exclusion for individuals who are in conditions of extremely digitally poor. The study also found that in addition of economic factors, factors condition of Human Resources and ICT and electrical supply also affect the digital poverty. Of these three factors, the condition of human resources is the most influential factor.

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Published

2016-12-29